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Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects approximately 0.02 percent of patients, with a morbidity rate of 33% requiring dialysis, and 13% mortality rate within 90 days. AKI's are a sudden decrease in filtration through the glomeruli, resulting in a buildup of toxins in the blood.
AKI's are labeled according to where in the genitourinary tract they occur:
- Prerenal acute kidney injury is a condition caused by hypoperfusion to the kidneys.
- Intrarenal acute kidney injury describes damage to the kidney itself.
- Postrenal acute kidney injury is caused by an obstrution of urine flow from the kidneys.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 14% of the population, with a high morbidity rate and a high mortality rate. Chronic kidney disease is the gradual loss of kidney function, measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels, over a period of months and years.
Chronic kidney disease can be caused by diabetes and hypertension.
Signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure may include:
- increased urination
- rusty or brown-colored urine
- increased thirst
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) affects approximately 363 million people per year, with a very high rate of dialysis or kidney transplant, and a very high mortality rate. End-stage renal disease is the last stage of chronic kidney disease, in which dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to live. ESRD is caused by a progressive decline in kidney function.
Signs and symptoms of end-stage renal failure may include:
- altered levels of consciousness
- shortness of breath
- peripheral edema
- chest pain
- bone pain
- muscle twitching